Indices of social expectations

Question: There exist different viewpoints on the Russian economic crisis. In your opinion, are we going through the hard times/are the hard times over/ or are the hard times yet to come? (closed-ended question, one answer, % of respondents and index in points)

*Social expectation index shows how optimistic respondents are about the country’s future. It is calculated as a difference between the answer “the hard times are over” and the sum of answers “the hard times are now” and “the hard times are yet to come”. The index can vary between -100 and 100 points. The higher the value of index is, the more optimistic Russia’s perspectives are seen. The zero value shows the balance between the optimistic and pessimistic assessments.